This page lists research instruments developed to capture the phenomenology of Reversal Theory. Instruments are listed in alphabetical order. Have you published a Reversal Theory instrument that you would like to see posted here? If so, complete this template and e-mail it to Jennifer Tucker. (Note: We are posting published instruments only.)
Apter Motivational Style Profile (AMSP)
A research version of The Apter Motivational Style Profile (AMSP), a state dominance measure, is available by agreement and free of charge, to bona fide researchers through the Apter International website. This facility allows the profile to be administered over the Internet, scored automatically, and the data to be saved in the form of a spreadsheet to which the researcher has confidential access.
Instrument Contact: Michael Apter: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Exercise Tension Scale (ETS)
Measures participants’ ratings of tension before skipping exercise for three reversal-theory state pairs at a self-identified time in the last month when they skipped exercise. ETS Overview Sheet.
Exercise Motivation Questionnaire-Mexican American (EMQ-MA)
Intended for Mexican Americans, this assessment assesses motives for participating in physical activity based on metamotivational states. The purpose of this study was to test a culturally relevant exercise motivation instrument with 269 Mexican Americans living along the Southern New Mexico Border area. There is potential for developing individualized exercise interventions based on exercise motivation as measured by the EMQ-MA. Exercise Motivation Questionnaire-Mexican American (EMQ-MA) Overview Sheet.
Instrument Contacts: Rebecca Keele: email@example.com
Feeling Tension Scale (FTS)
Measures participants’ ratings of tension before feeling down or low for three reversal-theory state pairs at a self-identified time in the last month when they felt down or low. FTS Overview Sheet.
Negativism Dominance Scale
Also called Social Reactivity Scale. Allows for the investigation of two dimensions of negativism, distinguishing between proactive and reactive rebelliousness. This instrument captures dominance measures rather than metamotivational states.
Instrument Contact: Mark R. McDermott School of Psychology, University of East London firstname.lastname@example.org.
Overeating Tension Scale (OTS)
Measures participants’ ratings of tension overeating for three reversal-theory state pairs at a self-identified time in the last month when they choose to overeat. OTS Overview Sheet.
State of Mind Indicator for Athletes (SOMIFA)
Asks subjects to select the responses which most closely describes their feelings during a specific sporting performance. Access the SOMIFA instrument.
Instrument Reference: Kerr, J. H. & Apter, M. J. (1999). The State of Mind Indicator for Athletes. In J. H. Kerr (Ed.), Experiencing sport: Reversal theory (pp.242-244). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Telic/Paratelic State Instrument
The Telic/Paratelic State Instrument (T/PSI) is a 12 item scale comprising a Serious-Minded/Playful subscale and an Arousal-Seeking/Arousal Avoidance Subscale. The items ask participants to circle numbers on 6-point rating scales with terms representing opposing metamotivational states at each end of the rating scales. Scores are summed to achieve subscale scores and the subscale scores are added together to produce a total score. Access T/PSI Overview Sheet.
Instrument Contact: Teachers College Columbia University Kathleen O’Connell: email@example.com