Journal of Motivation, Emotion, and Personality

Reversal Theory Studies


Modelling motivational dynamics: demonstrating when, why, and how we self-regulate motivation

Author: Laura B. Thomas, Joanne Hudson, and Emily J. Oliver Abstract: Motivation quality affects the initiation and maintenance of behavior and physical and psychological health. Despite this, we understand little about how situational fluctuations occur and are regulated. In this paper we analyze the utility of applying basic psychological needs theory (a sub theory of self-determination theory) […]

Understanding Exercise Behavior and Dropout through Metamotivational Dominance, Exercise Identity, and Motives

Author: Rachel Rahman, Joanne Hudson & Stuart W. Flint Abstract: Despite literature exploring interventions and strategies to encourage exercise adoption and maintenance, the dropout rate of irregular exercisers, particularly within the first six months of adoption, continues to reduce the effectiveness of such interventions. Whilst a body of literature exists exploring the dropout profile of clinical […]

The Role of Meta-Motivational States in Sexual Risk-Taking Intentions During Condom Negotiation

Author: Shayna Skakoon-Sparling & Kenneth M. Cramer Abstract: The current study applied reversal theory to better understand the motivational factors that influence sexual health decision-making during condom negotiation among young men and women. Participants (N = 440) read a vignette describing a romantic sexual encounter with a hypothetical new partner and answered embedded questions related to […]

An Historical Analysis of Reversal Theory Conference Presentations

Author: Kenneth Cramer, Nichole Summerfield, and Paige Goertzen Abstract: It has been suggested that reversal theory should endeavour to pursue more empirical studies (Cramer, 2013), yet continue to develop tools and applications; thus the present study examined the category of papers (N = 323) featured at reversal theory conferences from 1995–2015. Conference papers were divided into (initially […]

Reversals and the Pathway to Action

Author: Michael J. Apter Abstract: It will be argued that in reversal theory terms, the build-up to an action goes through five phases. The first is that of desire, represented by the ongoing array of motivational states. Secondly, there is an interpretation phase in which the individual assesses the possibilities for action. Here the individual’s lifeworld […]

Impact of Test-Taking Setting on Conformist-Negativistic States and Measures

Author: Mikaela Bevan & Kenneth M. Cramer Abstract: The rules domain from reversal theory describes how conformist and negativistic metamotivational states can affect how we perceive a given situation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the setting where participants completed a questionnaire impacts their conformist-negativistic states and/or their associated measures (both via […]

An Empirical Evaluation of the Reversal Theory State Measure Using Three Running Brand Video Commercials

Author: Leo Watkins, Marcia Wilson, Mark McDermott, and Richard Buscombe Abstract: This paper reports on the first known empirical use of the Reversal Theory State Measure (RTSM) since its publication by Desselles et al. (2014). The RTSM was employed to track responses to three purposely-selected video commercials in a between-subjects design. Results of the study provide empirical support for the […]

Characteristics of Pet Owners: Motivation and Need Fulfillment

Author: Kari A. Lustig, Kenneth M. Cramer Abstract:  Pets are a part of the lives of many people in the world today. This study builds on previous research on characteristics of pet owners and the needs satisfied by their pets. We analyzed the motivational dominances of cat and dog owners and their relationship to the needs […]

Elaborating the Mastery State and the Confidence Frame

Author: Jonathan R. Males, John H. Kerr, Joanne Hudson Abstract:  The role of the mastery metamotivational state and the antecedents of the confidence frame have, until now, been poorly defined in reversal theory (RT) research. The purpose of this theoretical manuscript is to provide an elaboration of RT’s mastery state and more clearly define its […]

Lecture Engagement and Metamotivational States: Tracking and Intervention

Author: Kenneth M. Cramer, Kathryn D. Lafreniere Abstract: We studied the underlying motives governing students’ active learning in the classroom. Previous investigations indicate that during a standard lecture, student ratings of engagement decrease along with serious-mindedness (telic state). In each of two studies, a questionnaire packet was distributed to participants at the start of their 75-minute social […]

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