Journal of Motivation, Emotion, and Personality

Reversal Theory Studies

July, 2015

Characteristics of Pet Owners: Motivation and Need Fulfillment

Author: Kari A. Lustig, Kenneth M. Cramer Abstract:  Pets are a part of the lives of many people in the world today. This study builds on previous research on characteristics of pet owners and the needs satisfied by their pets. We analyzed the motivational dominances of cat and dog owners and their relationship to the needs […]

Elaborating the Mastery State and the Confidence Frame

Author: Jonathan R. Males, John H. Kerr, Joanne Hudson Abstract:  The role of the mastery metamotivational state and the antecedents of the confidence frame have, until now, been poorly defined in reversal theory (RT) research. The purpose of this theoretical manuscript is to provide an elaboration of RT’s mastery state and more clearly define its […]

Respondent Self-Focus and the Internal Consistency of the Motivational Style Profile

Author: Kenneth M. Cramer, Kathryn D. Lafreniere, Phillip A. Ianni Abstract:  One of the underlying tenets of both personality and social psychological theory assumes that questionnaire respondents have access to their thoughts and feelings. The same tenet underlies the various reversal theory states (e.g., telic/paratelic, negativism/conformity, autic mastery/sympathy, alloic mastery/sympathy), so that individuals who are more […]

Development and Validation of an Implicit Measure of Meta-Motivational States

Author: Laura B. Thomas, Joanne Hudson, Emily J. Oliver Abstract: The development of an easily-administered, valid and reliable meta-motivational state measure, capable of assessing the full spectrum of states, is needed to further the understanding and application of reversal theory (Apter, 2013). The present paper outlines an adaptation of the Stroop protocol to implicitly measure meta-motivational states […]

Lecture Engagement and Metamotivational States: Tracking and Intervention

Author: Kenneth M. Cramer, Kathryn D. Lafreniere Abstract: We studied the underlying motives governing students’ active learning in the classroom. Previous investigations indicate that during a standard lecture, student ratings of engagement decrease along with serious-mindedness (telic state). In each of two studies, a questionnaire packet was distributed to participants at the start of their 75-minute social […]

Exploring the Concept of Focus in Reversal Theory

Author: Michael J.  Apter Abstract: Two main kinds of motivational change have been suggested in reversal theory: reversal and focal change. The latter, to which comparatively little attention has been paid so far, is about the relative importance of di fferent motivational states and values in conscious experience at a given time and over time. If reversals are […]